Analysis of Vocation and Calling

A vocation or a calling is a duty associated with serving people out of own will. This is different from general work that people do with expected gain in the end. There are several calls that an individual can be associated with based on their will power. Based on a Christian view or else, a religious view, there are people who choose to serve God throughout their lives. In the Bible, Jesus has his disciples serve him and not all chosen were able to follow him. In the world today, we have priesthood, Imams, Bishops etc who work in ministries spreading the message of salvation to people. Such acts can be described as vocation (Dik, Duffy, 2009).

The difference between vocation and work is based on what makes you different. Vocation is meant to bring personal satisfaction in doing well for people. A secular definition of vocation that we hear on a daily basis is career.  A career is a path a person chooses to follow. This makes it more of a choice that one can decide to does or not. In all circumstances vocation is never abandoned thus making it a calling. The main difference between a career and a calling is the expected gain. People choose careers because they feel they can be good at them and gain from the profession.

My study will focus on how viable I am to doing vocation work based on a study questionnaire. Previous studies on relationship between career and calling among college students show that the two are positively correlated. The choice of a certain career is almost dependent on the calling of the individual. This is determined by how they view the world in general. It is true to say that those that tend to respond more to their calling are likely to perform better in their careers. A calling will also lead to more satisfaction in people’s lives hence peaceful living.

The study focuses on several factors that determine how close to a calling one can be. Religious individuals were found to be more relevant in the aspect of searching for their calling as well as following one unlike those who are passively religious.  Race/ethnicity, sex of participants and year in college was used as a factor to consider when viewing the relevancy of a vocational calling. The questionnaire used a the Career Decision Self-Efficacy scale (CDSE-SF) to determine the career confidence levels. The higher the scores recorded, the higher the career self efficacy decision levels. 

Based on the results, the measures and scores were analyzed to round off errors and calculate the deviations. All factors were considered with those that had the calling being given the highest rank in the factors. The Calling and Vocation Questionnaire method was used to establish those who were not aware of a calling or a career difference. Based on sex, ethnicity, religious views and years in college, the results were then analyzed and tabulated for interpretation. In relation to the models used to fit the data, smaller fits produced better results indicating that the best four sub-scales to be used in determining whether one was guided by a calling were Presence-Transcendent Summons, Presence-Purposeful Work and Presence-Prosocial Orientation and Search-Transcendent Summons, Search-Purposeful Work, Search-Prosocial Orientation that indicated a search for the calling.

The findings indicated that the turn out for women was higher than that of men. From the analysis, it was concluded that women are more inclined to a calling than a career. Men however care so much about their career as it gives them the pride and ego of a man. Ethnic backgrounds did not produce significant differences in the search or presence of calling thus no major conclusion can be made from that. Year of college did not record significant deviation either. This can be ruled out by the fact that most college going individuals are mature to know their need s in either career or vocational training.

The BSC scale that measures the presence or search of a calling indicated that the two are correlated. Those in search of a calling are likely to discover it through career strategies and talks that guide them on their future career choices. This brings the search to a closer view as those that already feel the presence of the calling. The Wrzesniewski calling paragraph (Wrzesniewski, 2003) is used to determine how much a character can best define the reality of a person based on their actions. This rated the extent at which the person was related to a calling or a career.

The work hope theory was a scale used to determine the extent of work hope in diverse populations. This hope can be based on the people’s hope in a certain vocation or professional. The meaning in life questionnaire was also used to determine how much meaning people found in whatever they were involved in. the higher the score in the MLQ, the higher the presence of a calling. With all factors considered, a gauge on my own volatility of whether am career or vocational oriented was also analyzed from the scales used. The CVQ also provided all the individuals with a way of examining their flexibility level of their calling at a given level.

On a daily basis, students are often faced with the challenge of whether to choose a career path or follow their calling. There are factors that can be attributed to the dilemma faced in such situations such as need to make their parents proud, fear of being ridiculed, peer pressure as well as societal views on some career paths.  Besides the factors that the scales used to determine the search, presence or absence of a calling, the society has some say to what path many students take.

From the Calling Vocation Questionnaire, most of my scores lie in the gap of Search –Purposeful work. This means that, I may not have discovered my calling but my career aims to benefit the society with the hope of finding meaning to what I am required to do. I may not believe to have been called to do so but as long as I find some purpose in doing it, then I will pursue the career. Being a male student, I feel more inclined to career and professionalism rather than vocation. My career aspiration and the need to succeed is the drive that makes me strive for success rather than satisfaction.

In addition to the above, the Brief Calling Scale classifies me as one that is in search of their calling or purpose in line with the career path. This then summarizes the fact that I belong less to vocation and more to career. I can safely conclude that my capability of doing vocational work to the fullest is minimized by the fact that I still have not found my calling. Human services require a dedicated human called to serve rather than own personal gains. The best imitation of people working to serve are those that preach, teach or heal since their work is more involving that what they get based on their career. It is important to consider a career that goes hand in hand with a calling for personal gain and satisfaction.

Rhetoric and Politics

Rhetoric and politics encompasses a heterogeneous area of research. There is a long history and study of the subjects that give anything but a straightforward conclusion regarding their interrelation. The core concepts that are discussed in these topics include leadership, power, inequality and values. In a bid to expound on the matter, this essay will analyze the writings of four individuals namely Plato, Aristotle, Augustine and Wayne Booth. In addition, the analysis evaluates logical fallacies used by the authors.

            To begin with, Plato’s Gorgias discusses two conflicting kinds of rhetoric. Firstly, he describes rhetoric as a pseudo-art. He explains that rhetoric is a mere knack that is based on one’s experience and not on a person’s real knowledge of a subject matter. On the other hand, Plato states that the most important thing in a person’s life is to discover the truth. The writing is a debate/dialogue between Socrates and Gorgias regarding the influence and relevance of rhetoric and philosophy. Socrates writes, “Rhetoric is one of those arts that work mainly by the use of words” (Plato, & Sachs, 2012).

            Plato introduces the topic by providing a clear distinction between philosophy and rhetoric. He states that philosophy deals with truth while rhetoric deals with presentation or how the dialogue unfolds. He expounds the subject by stating that philosophy is considered an art of self-mastery. In contrast, rhetoric can be said to be the art seeking to master others. Plato describes oratory power as the ability to use speech in persuading judges in a law court, assemblymen or councilors in a meeting. His argument defends rhetoric by stating, “Nothing transcends human language or expression” (Plato, & Sachs, 2012). Principally, human beings are bound to the confines of language and oratory experience in order to eliminate mystery. In Gorgias, he deploys the rhetoric as a weapon that is capable of good and evil.

            In a bid to further elaborate the topic, Plato uses Socrates’ example of a shipwright or craftsman. He states that for every election held, the council should chose the most skilled craftsman to build the harbors and ships. The article further expounds rhetoric by mentioning the need to use rhetoric in a fair way. Rhetorician can speak for all men and they can persuade a multitude of them but only in a truthful manner. One should not take advantage of their skills/ knowledge by defrauding artists of their reputation. For instance, he writes, “For they taught their art for a good purpose, to be used against enemies or evil-doers, in self-defense, not in aggression” (Plato, & Sachs, 2012).

            In Wayne Booth’s rhetorical stance, he combined the study of literature and rhetoric. He argues that it is possible to teach the art of persuasion by combining three factors namely: mastery of the subject matter that one is speaking about, the audience that one is addressing and the influence generated by communicator’s voiced. Therefore, the concept of ‘rhetorical stance’ pays attention to the three aforementioned factors (Booth, 1983). Booth further explains rhetoric and politics by relying exclusively on mastery. This means that the rhetor persuades others with her knowledge which invariably leads to resentment rather than acceptance of the message. On the other hand, the advertiser’s stance persuades potential supporters by using strong statements without knowledge or understanding of the issues at hand. Essentially, Wayne Booth advocates for a rhetorical situation that balances the position of the speaker, audience and subject. In his article he writes, “Rhetorical stance depends on discovering and maintaining a proper balance among the subject, interest and peculiarity of the audience” (Booth, 1983). More so, he notes, “rhetoric is the art of finding and employing the most effective means of persuasion of any subject that is considered independent mastery of a subject.” He compares rhetoric to poetry or art but he improves the ideology by advocating for continued practice and experience. Therefore, the art of persuasion is learnt through experience (Booth, 1983).  

            Similarly, Aristotle explains rhetoric on tangible realities of the world by describing, organizing and classifying the subjects. His approach contrasts with Plato’s technique to philosophy by classifying different appeals or tools on the basis of persuasive arguments. In the first chapter, Aristotle discusses the importance of rhetoric by establishing pathos, logos to logic and ethos. Pathos appeal to emotion while logos appeal to reasoning (logic) and finally, ethos appeal on the character of the speaker. He highlights deductive reasoning by dividing and classifying phenomena. It inquires the reasons why speakers succeed through practice (Aristotle & Kennedy, 1991).

            The author further explains importance of rhetoric by using an example of administrators and law makers. Aristotle states that lawmakers should be capable of legislating and administering justice, and this can be made easier by the application of rhetoric. He explains this subject by using a speech on judicial species that is delivered in a court scenario. The agenda of the rhetoric is explained by employing two tripartite divisions.  Firstly, his speech produces persuasion using the character and secondly by evaluating emotional state of the audience. Thirdly, he considers the subject or argument targeted to its listeners. By referring to the speech, the jury had to judge whether a past event was just or contrary to the law (Aristotle and Kennedy, 1991).

            Aristotle also stresses rhetoric as a counterpart to dialectic. The two topics are substantiated by common features such as reliance on accepted sentences and dependency on the p principles of specific sciences. Also, rhetoric and dialectic depend on on the deduction and induction theories and they are both essential in practical and public matters. In his writing, he states, “One can use rational speech to unjustly do great harm or do good things” (Aristotle & Kennedy, 1991). Principally, Aristotle is convince that rhetoric useful in outwitting the audience by concealing their main aims.

            In Augustine’s From on Christian Doctrine, the author rebutes Christians’ who view rhetoric as a pagan artifact that should be eschewed.  Augustine explains that rhetoric can be used to prove truth as well as falsehood. He explains the subject by using infants who cannot speak but can only learn words from those who can speak. He writes, “If the hearers need teaching and are friendly and attentive, the matter treated of must be made fully known by means of a narrative” (Augustinus & Green, 1999). In a bid to further explain this point, his article writes, “It would be unwise to concede to concede the most useful persuasive tools to those with evil intentions” (Augustinus & Green, 1999). Therefore, to be persuasive, he recommended his audience to listen to the most eloquent Christians and imitate or apply what they see. Those individuals with eager minds are more likely to learn eloquence by listening to the eloquent rather than following the written canons of eloquence. If the capacity to learn this type of eloquence is missing, then it would be hard to comprehend the rule of rhetoric.


            In summary, the four philosophers analyze rhetoric and politics in different ways. However, most of them agree that the art of persuasion is gradually acquired through time and experience. Plato explains rhetoric by comparing it with philosophy. On the other hand, Augustine uses rhetoric to distinguish between the truth and falsehood. Aristotle explains the subject by classifying different appeals or tools on the basis of persuasive arguments. Lastly, Wayne booth writes that the art of persuasion is directly related to the subject matter, the audience and the influence generated by communicator’s voice.

Forces behind Population Change

            Researchers and demographers have always tried to forecast the population changes. There are various factors that play a major role in influencing the population. There are four forces that have been established to be the main influencers of population changes. These include fertility rates, migration, and the mortality rate.

            Fertility rates keep changing over time and this has an influence on the population. In cases where the fertility rate is high, the population grows at an increasing rate. Contrarily, a decrease in the fertility rate leads to a decrease in the population hence the alternating rates creates a disparity in population over various times. With regard to migration, the population changes only in some regions of the world. However, with constant movement of people from one area to another, the population of one area declines as the other increases.

            Mortality rate is another determinant that has a great influence on the dynamics of the population. Mortality rate is defined as the death rate of the population. The age structure of the population influences its mortality rate. The elderly and the infants are perceived to be at a higher risk of dying than the middle-aged. It is presumed that communities with high populations of either the elderly or infants experience variations in populations.

Effects of Urbanization on the Environment

            Urbanization refers to the increase in the population and the number of industrialization settlements being established. It involves the increase in the extent and also the number of urban centers. Due to increase in urbanization, there have been both negative and positive impacts. Increased levels of urbanization is caused by either natural or growth of the population or increased migration into the already established urban centers. The forces behind urbanization include opportunities and services that are perceived to be in the towns. In most cases, there are positive relationships between the national levels of population growth and the rate of urbanization.

            Urbanization causes various effects on the environment that lead to environmental degradation. Management of the urban environmental sustainability may pose difficulties. Some of the negative environmental effects brought by the increased urbanization include land insecurity within the regions close to the towns, poor water quality, and increased air pollution as a result of increased industrialization, noise pollution increases, and more waste disposal problems (Cui et al 2012). It is impossible to inhibit urbanization but the effects of the population increase may be controlled through imposition of certain measures by the responsible authorities.

Population Changes Approaches

            The structural functional approach defines the society as a structure that has several interdependent parts. It depicts the society with regard to the various elements such as traditions, norms, customs, and institutions. The societal structure is emphasized and placed centrally during the analysis. Many functionalist approach aspects are similar to those of other approaches. Some of these alike aspects are the function, influence and origin, as well as the evolutionary changes. External factors and conflicts tend to have an effect on the general population changes (Macionis 2011).

            Symbolic interactionism addresses the method in which people formulate and maintain the society through meaningful interrelations. The approach deems that the society ultimately shapes the character of an individual. Individuals within the society use designated signs and language during communication (Macionis 2011). The society has a role in influencing characteristics such as migration which is mostly a result of individual perceptions. If individuals decide not to relocate from one region, the population may not change but if the individuals migrate constantly due to negative perceptions due to influence from the society, the people emigrate from the area thus influencing the population dynamics.

            The other previously discussed approaches of sociology do not cover the issue of conflicts within them. The approach focuses on the society that is constituted of social bonds, interaction of the members, and the means of socialization. The approach also describes the society as comprising of stratified social classes that may influence the population negatively or positively towards changes (Macionis 2011). Under this approach, the population changes may be influenced by the aspects covered under this category such as the social bonds. Where there are no strong social bonds, the fertility rate may be influenced negatively hence lowering the population and vice versa.


            There are various forces that bring about divergence of the population over time. The changes also impact the environment if the population increases in the urban centers. These environmental issues affect the living conditions of the persons within the towns. There are various approaches that the governments and other responsible authorities that try to address the issues of the impacts of the urbanization on the environment. One of the most effective ways through which the environmental conditions can be addressed is through controlling the housing schemes within the towns so as to address the issue of housing problems. Also, there should be established measures that restrict the industries being set up within the towns.